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enable final sigma ligatures in lgr-*.tfm
1 % !TEX TS-program = pdflatex
2 % !TEX encoding = UTF-8 Unicode
4 % $Id$
5 % This file is part of the Gentium package for TeX.
6 % It is licensed under the Expat License, see doc//README for details.
8 \documentclass[11pt, welsh, british]{article}
9 \usepackage{babel}
10 \usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
11 \usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
12 \usepackage{gentium}
13 \renewcommand{\ttdefault}{lmvtt}
14 \usepackage{fancyhdr,lastpage,fancyref}
15 \usepackage{array,longtable,verbatim}
16 \usepackage{booktabs}
17 \usepackage{multirow}
18 \usepackage{url}
19 \urlstyle{tt}
20 \usepackage[breaklinks,colorlinks,
21 linkcolor=black,citecolor=black,urlcolor=black]
22 {hyperref}
23 %\usepackage{microtype}
24 \usepackage[a4paper,headheight=14pt,scale=0.8]{geometry}
25 % use 14pt for 11pt text, 15pt for 12pt text
27 \title{Gentium for \TeX}
28 \author{Mojca Miklavec \and Pavel Farář
29 \and Thomas A. Schmitz \and Karl Berry}
30 \newcommand*{\dyddiad}{\today}
31 \newcommand*{\ofname}{of}
32 \date{\dyddiad}
33 \pagestyle{fancy}
34 \fancyhf[lh]{\itshape gentium-tug}
35 \fancyhf[rh]{\itshape\dyddiad}
36 \fancyhf[ch]{}
37 \fancyhf[lf]{}
38 \fancyhf[rf]{}
39 \fancyhf[cf]{\itshape --- \thepage~\ofname~\pageref{LastPage} ---}
41 \usepackage{textcomp}
43 \def\ConTeXt{Con{\TeX}t}
44 \def\ConTeXtMKII{Con{\TeX}t {\sc MkII}}
45 \def\ConTeXtMKIV{Con{\TeX}t {\sc MkIV}}
46 \def\XeTeX{Xe{\TeX}} % TODO: improve the first "e"--reversed and lowered
47 \def\pdfTeX{pdf{\TeX}}
48 \def\pdfLaTeX{pdf{\LaTeX}}
49 \def\TeXLive{\TeX~Live}
50 \def\MiKTeX{MiK\TeX}
51 \def\MacTeX{Mac\TeX}
53 \begin{document}
54 \maketitle
55 \thispagestyle{empty}
56 \pdfinfo{%
57 /Creator (TeX)
58 /Producer (pdfTeX)
59 /Author (Pavel Farář, Mojca Miklavec, Clea F.\ Rees, Thomas A. Schmitz, Karl Berry)
60 /Title (Gentium for TeX)
61 /Subject (TeX)
62 /Keywords (TeX,LaTeX,ConTeXt,font,fonts,tex,latex,gentium,GentiumPlus,GentiumBasic,Gentium,SIL,sil)}
63 \pdfcatalog{%
64 /URL ()
65 /PageMode /UseOutlines}
66 % other values: /UseNone, /UseOutlines, /UseThumbs, /FullScreen
67 %[openaction <actionspec>]
68 % \pagestyle{empty}
69 % if you want this, you probably want to comment out \maketitle as well...?
70 \setlength{\parindent}{0pt}
71 \setlength{\parskip}{0.5em}
74 \newcommand*{\sil}{\textsc{sil}}
75 \newcommand*{\pkgname}[1]{\textsf{#1}}
76 \newcommand*{\fname}[1]{\textsf{#1}}
78 \begin{abstract}
79 \hspace*{-\parindent}This document outlines the
80 \TeX/\LaTeX/\ConTeXt\ support provided by this
81 package, \pkgname{gentium-tug}, for the Gentium font collection
82 released by \sil.
83 \end{abstract}
85 \tableofcontents
88 \section{Introduction}
90 This document explains how to use the \TeX/\LaTeX/\ConTeXt\ support in
91 the present package for the Gentium font collection developed by \sil.
92 This package includes fonts in PostScript Type~1 format converted from
93 the original TrueType files released by \sil\ (using the FontForge
94 routines found in this package). These Type~1 fonts use the name
95 `Gentium' by permission of \sil\ to the \TeX\ Users Group. Therefore
96 the name of this \TeX\ package, by request of \sil, is
97 \pkgname{gentium-tug}. Its home page is \url{https://tug.org/gentium}.
99 Further information about the fonts themselves can be found in the
100 included documentation and at \url{https://scripts.sil.org/gentium}. The
101 fonts are released under the \textsc{sil} Open Font License. For
102 details, see \url{ofl.txt} and \url{ofl-faq.txt}. (In the event of
103 releasing modified versions of the fonts, either TrueType or Type~1,
104 it's required to use a name that doesn't include ``Gentium'', per the
105 \textsc{ofl}.)
107 This \TeX/\LaTeX/\ConTeXt\ support package consists of metrics, map
108 files, style files, documentation, and so on. These files are released
109 under the Expat license. The text for both licenses is included at the
110 end of this document, and in files in the distribution.
112 If you have the package installed and just want to know how to use
113 Gentium in your \TeX\ documents, feel free to skip to
114 section~\ref{sec:latex-package} (\LaTeX\ usage) or
115 section~\ref{sec:context-package} (\ConTeXt\ usage).
117 Please report any problems (contact info on the web page). If you can
118 also send a fix, so much the better.
121 \section{Gentium collection background}
123 This package uses the original fonts GentiumPlus to make the regular and
124 italic styles and GentiumBasic to make the bold and bold italic styles,
125 and combines them into one \TeX-world family.
127 GentiumPlus is a serif family designed to support a wide range of Latin,
128 Greek and Cyrillic characters. It currently includes just the regular
129 and italic style, as well as smallcaps.
131 GentiumBasic has just the Latin characters and it even lacks some Latin
132 characters found in GentiumPlus. Therefore, the bold and bold italic
133 styles of this package support fewer languages than the regular and
134 italic styles (e.g.\ Czech and Slovak are not fully
135 supported). Moreover, GentiumBasic has no smallcaps and no kerning
136 pairs. When and if \sil\ releases bold and bold italic GentiumPlus
137 fonts, we will switch to those, of course.
139 This package does not use the Berry fontname scheme, but longer names
140 similar to those of Latin Modern, etc. One disadvantage of this choice
141 is that you cannot use the additional font selection commands provided
142 by the package \pkgname{nfssext-cfr}.
145 \section{Installation}
147 If you are using a reasonably recent \MiKTeX\ or \TeXLive\ or distro
148 installation it should be enough to install the \pkgname{gentium-tug}
149 package (if it's not already present).
151 Otherwise, or if you want to install the font manually, you will in
152 general need to perform these steps:
153 \begin{enumerate}
154 \item choose whether to install the font system-wide or in a personal
155 directory;
156 \item move or copy the package files to the appropriate location;
157 \item refresh the \TeX\ database;
158 \item incorporate the included map file fragments for the different
159 engines.
160 \end{enumerate}
162 However, that's all that it make sense to say here. It's beyond the
163 scope of this Gentium documentation to explain all the myriad ways in
164 which \TeX-world map files can be installed and used; there are
165 differences between \TeXLive\ and \MiKTeX, too.
167 Instead, we refer you to an explanation of the system-wide installation,
168 with information for both \MiKTeX\ and \TeXLive, at
169 \url{https://tug.org/fonts/fontinstall.html}. A corresponding
170 explanation for personal installation is at
171 \url{https://tug.org/fonts/fontinstall-personal.html}.
173 Those pages describe using \path{testfont.tex} for a basic test of the
174 font; a tfm file name to use with that is \url{ec-gentiumplus-regular}.
176 To further test your installation and that the package works on your
177 system, run \LaTeX\ on this \path{gentium.tex} source file. (You'll
178 need some commonly-available \LaTeX\ packages too, or comment them at.)
179 The console output and/or log should tell you whether any fonts were not
180 found. You can also compare your output with the original
181 \path{gentium.pdf}.
184 \section{Gentium \TeX\ support packages}\label{sec:support}
186 In short, for \LaTeX\ it suffices to include \verb|\usepackage{gentium}|
187 in your document preamble, and for \ConTeXtMKIV,
188 \verb|\setupbodyfont[gentium]|. Details follow.
190 The only prerequisite is that the \LaTeX\ package (\path{gentium.sty})
191 requires \pkgname{xkeyval}, which you almost certainly already have.
194 \subsection{Encodings}\label{sec:encs}
196 The package supports not only the most common Latin encodings such as
197 \textsc{ot1}, TeXnANSI/\textsc{ly1}, Cork/\textsc{ec}/\textsc{t1} and
198 Text Companion/\textsc{ts1} encodings, but also (in regular and italic)
199 other Latin, Greek and Cyrillic encodings. Most characters in the text
200 encodings and some of those in the Text Companion encoding are
201 available, including the~\texteuro. You can see the available encodings
202 in table~\ref{encodings}. The Greek encoding LGR is supported only in
203 \LaTeX, and AGR only in \ConTeXt.
205 \begin{table}[h]
206 \centering
207 \begin{tabular}{lll}
208 \toprule
209 script & available encodings & styles \\
210 \midrule
211 Latin & OT1, T1, LY1, L7x, QX, T5, TS1 & regular, italic, bold,
212 bold italic \\
213 Cyrillic & T2A, T2B, T2C, X2 & regular, italic\\
214 Greek & LGR (\LaTeX), AGR (\ConTeXt) & regular, italic \\
215 \bottomrule
216 \end{tabular}
217 \caption{Available encodings in \pkgname{gentium-tug}.}
218 \label{encodings}
219 \end{table}
221 The regular and italic styles support all these Latin, Greek and Cyrillic
222 encodings. They support also small caps for the Latin and Cyrillic encodings,
223 but there are no small caps for Greek.
225 The bold and bold italic styles support only the Latin encodings and they
226 have no small caps.
228 Cork/T1 encoding lacks visible space, cwm (compound work mark),
229 SS and the character for composing permille sign.
231 Missing characters in bold styles for Latin encodings:
233 T1: Aogonek / aogonek, Eogonek / eogonek, Lcaron / lcaron,
234 Scedilla / scedilla, uni021A (Tcommaaccent) / uni021B (tcommaaccent),
235 dcaron, tcaron
237 L7x: Rcommaaccent, Gcommaaccent, Kcommaaccent, Lcommaaccent, Ncommaaccent,
238 Aogonek, Eogonek, Iogonek, Uogonek
240 QX: Aogonek, Eogonek, Iogonek, uni021A (Tcommaaccent)
243 \subsection{\LaTeX}
244 \label{sec:latex-package}
246 To use Gentium fonts in a \LaTeX\ document, add
247 \verb|\usepackage{gentium}| to your document preamble. This will set
248 the default serif/roman family to \fname{gentium}.
250 If you want to use Gentium together with another font (sans or
251 typewriter) with a different x-height, you should consider using the
252 option \verb|scaled|. This scales Gentium font and if you choose the
253 right scaling factor, you will get the same x-height of both fonts.
254 Here is an example of this option:
255 \begin{verbatim}
256 \usepackage[scaled=0.9]{gentium}
257 \end{verbatim}
260 \subsection{\ConTeXt}
261 \label{sec:context-package}
263 In \ConTeXtMKIV, to switch to the Gentium typeface you only need:
264 \begin{verbatim}
265 \setupbodyfont[gentium]
266 \end{verbatim}
268 In \ConTeXtMKII, before doing that you need either (for \pdfTeX):
269 \begin{verbatim}
270 \usetypescriptfile[type-gentium]
271 \usetypescript[gentium][ec] % or whatever encoding
272 \end{verbatim}
273 or (for \XeTeX):
274 \begin{verbatim}
275 \usetypescriptfile[type-gentium]
276 \usetypescript[gentium]
277 \end{verbatim}
280 \subsection{Changes in the Type~1 fonts vs.\ the TrueType originals}
282 The shapes of all characters in the Type~1 fonts are the same as in the
283 original TrueType fonts, except for the unavoidable changes are induced
284 by the format conversion (that is, the spline representations are
285 necessarily different).
287 However, a few small changes---hopefully improvements---were made to the
288 metrics of the GentiumPlus family (that is, regular and italic; bold and
289 bold italic are untouched). The Type~1 fonts are used to generate the
290 \TeX\ font metric files (tfm), so these changes propagate to the 8-bit
291 engines like \pdfTeX.
293 The first change concerns Greek. 8-bit Greek encodings (LGR and AGR) do
294 not use precomposed accented capital letters. These letters are composed
295 as a sequence of two glyphs: accent + capital letter. The problem is
296 that this sequence does not look like the precomposed letter---there is
297 often big space between the accent and the letter. Therefore, there are
298 some extra kerning pairs between accents and capital Greek
299 letters. These kerning pairs are created automatically (the script is
300 included in the sources) and the goal is to have the same relative
301 position between the accent and the letter as in the precomposed
302 letter. Thanks to these extra kerning pairs you should get better
303 results for 8-bit engines. These changes are irrelevant for Unicode
304 engines---they use the precomposed letters.
306 Another change concerning Greek was made in July 2019 (version 1.1.1):
307 for the LGR encoding only (files \verb|lgr-gentiumplus-regular.tfm| and
308 \verb|lgr-gentiumplus-regular.tfm|), ligatures were added such that a
309 sigma at the end of a word (i.e., the compound-word-mark as a boundary
310 character) or followed by punctuation is automatically changed to a
311 final sigma, as is usual for that encoding. Thanks to Ralf Stubner for
312 suggesting and then implementing this.
314 The second general change is in the letters dcaron (ď) and lcaron
315 (ľ) that are used in the Czech and Slovak languages. (There was
316 no need to change tcaron (ť) and Lcaron (Ľ) with the same
317 accent.) There is no change of their shapes, and their advance widths
318 are also untouched---the change is to add several kerning pairs with
319 quite big negative values. Without these changes there was often a large
320 space between dcaron or lcaron and the following letter, so the changes
321 make the words containing these letters much more compact. You get these
322 changes automatically if you use 8-bit engines. If you use Unicode
323 engines with the original TrueType fonts, you get the original
324 metrics. However, you can tell the Unicode engines to use the Type~1
325 fonts (which append \verb|PS| to the family name) like this:
326 \begin{verbatim}
327 \usepackage{fontspec}
328 \setmainfont{GentiumPlusPS}
329 \end{verbatim}
330 Then you get the additional kern pairs for dcaron and lcaron. The
331 unfortunately disadvantage is that you cannot use small caps.
333 The last (similar) change is that additional kerning pairs were added to
334 the Type~1 fonts for accented Latin letters and small caps. The original
335 TrueType fonts have no such kerning pairs. As with the Czech/Slovak
336 changes, you get these changes automatically if you use 8-bit
337 engines. If you use Unicode engines with the original TrueType fonts,
338 you get the original metrics, but you can override as above (but since
339 you cannot use small caps with that method, the kerning pairs for small
340 caps become irrelevant).
343 \section{Known bugs}
345 There are problems in older versions of \pdfTeX\ with small caps when
346 using TrueType fonts. In particular, the Latin encoding \textsc{t5} and all
347 Cyrillic encodings are unusable. You can use the Type~1 version of the
348 fonts or at least \pdfTeX\ version 1.40.13 to avoid these problems.
350 The Gentium fonts are a work in progress and as such they still miss
351 some features like kerning pairs for some letters. Currently, there are
352 no kerning pairs in the GentiumBasic family at all and the GentiumPlus
353 family has kerning pairs just for Latin letters without accents and for
354 Greek letters; there are no kerning pairs for small caps, accented Latin
355 letters or Cyrillic letters. The Type~1 fonts in this package have some
356 additional kerning pairs for accented Latin letters and for small
357 caps. Kerning pairs for Cyrillic are under consideration.
360 \section{License}
362 The fonts in this page, both the \sil\ originals and the derived Type~1
363 versions, are released under \textsc{ofl}. The \TeX\ support files
364 are licensed under the Expat License. Here are the full license texts.
367 \subsection{SIL Open Font License}
369 \hfuzz=1.4pt
371 Copyright (c) 2003-2011 SIL International (https://www.sil.org/),
372 with Reserved Font Names ``Gentium'' and ``SIL''.
374 This Font Software is licensed under the SIL Open Font License, Version 1.1.
375 This license is copied below, and is also available with a FAQ at:
376 http://scripts.sil.org/OFL
379 % TODO: Try to have the similar look as the text version
380 %-----------------------------------------------------------
381 SIL OPEN FONT LICENSE Version 1.1 --- 26 February 2007
382 %-----------------------------------------------------------
387 The goals of the Open Font License (OFL) are to stimulate worldwide
388 development of collaborative font projects, to support the font creation
389 efforts of academic and linguistic communities, and to provide a free and
390 open framework in which fonts may be shared and improved in partnership
391 with others.
393 The OFL allows the licensed fonts to be used, studied, modified and
394 redistributed freely as long as they are not sold by themselves. The
395 fonts, including any derivative works, can be bundled, embedded,
396 redistributed and/or sold with any software provided that any reserved
397 names are not used by derivative works. The fonts and derivatives,
398 however, cannot be released under any other type of license. The
399 requirement for fonts to remain under this license does not apply
400 to any document created using the fonts or their derivatives.
405 ``Font Software'' refers to the set of files released by the Copyright
406 Holder(s) under this license and clearly marked as such. This may
407 include source files, build scripts and documentation.
409 ``Reserved Font Name'' refers to any names specified as such after the
410 copyright statement(s).
412 ``Original Version'' refers to the collection of Font Software components as
413 distributed by the Copyright Holder(s).
415 ``Modified Version'' refers to any derivative made by adding to, deleting,
416 or substituting---in part or in whole---any of the components of the
417 Original Version, by changing formats or by porting the Font Software to a
418 new environment.
420 ``Author'' refers to any designer, engineer, programmer, technical
421 writer or other person who contributed to the Font Software.
426 Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
427 a copy of the Font Software, to use, study, copy, merge, embed, modify,
428 redistribute, and sell modified and unmodified copies of the Font
429 Software, subject to the following conditions:
431 1) Neither the Font Software nor any of its individual components,
432 in Original or Modified Versions, may be sold by itself.
434 2) Original or Modified Versions of the Font Software may be bundled,
435 redistributed and/or sold with any software, provided that each copy
436 contains the above copyright notice and this license. These can be
437 included either as stand-alone text files, human-readable headers or
438 in the appropriate machine-readable metadata fields within text or
439 binary files as long as those fields can be easily viewed by the user.
441 3) No Modified Version of the Font Software may use the Reserved Font
442 Name(s) unless explicit written permission is granted by the corresponding
443 Copyright Holder. This restriction only applies to the primary font name as
444 presented to the users.
446 4) The name(s) of the Copyright Holder(s) or the Author(s) of the Font
447 Software shall not be used to promote, endorse or advertise any
448 Modified Version, except to acknowledge the contribution(s) of the
449 Copyright Holder(s) and the Author(s) or with their explicit written
450 permission.
452 5) The Font Software, modified or unmodified, in part or in whole,
453 must be distributed entirely under this license, and must not be
454 distributed under any other license. The requirement for fonts to
455 remain under this license does not apply to any document created
456 using the Font Software.
461 This license becomes null and void if any of the above conditions are
462 not met.
467 \textsc{The font software is provided ``as is'', without warranty of any kind,
468 express or implied, including but not limited to any warranties of
469 merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement
470 of copyright, patent, trademark, or other right. In no event shall the
471 copyright holder be liable for any claim, damages or other liability,
472 including any general, special, indirect, incidental, or consequential
473 damages, whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise, arising
474 from, out of the use or inability to use the font software or from
475 other dealings in the font software.}
478 \subsection{Expat License}
480 Copyright (c) 2008-2019 TeX Users Group
482 Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
483 a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
484 ``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
485 without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
486 distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
487 permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
488 the following conditions:
490 The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
491 in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
493 \textsc{The software is provided ``as is'', without warranty of any kind,
494 express or implied, including but not limited to the warranties of
495 merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement.
496 In no event shall the authors or copyright holders be liable for any
497 claim, damages or other liability, whether in an action of contract,
498 tort or otherwise, arising from, out of or in connection with the
499 software or the use or other dealings in the software.}
503 % OT1 is the same for regular and italic style (like TeX Gyre, unlike
504 % Computer Modern)---this might go to the bugs section.
506 % Cyrillic encodings use some letters with tail instead of with descender.
509 % TODO
511 % Show the available encodings in a better way (probably something
512 % similar to README), probably use small caps. Look at Clea's tables
513 % if they are better than what I wrote.
515 % Improve the LaTeX logo in Gentium (not so much related to this
516 % documentation).
518 % Search for gentiumplus and vgx---the latter shouldn't be present.
520 % Scale the monospaced font to match the x-height.
522 % Change the license and other information in the header.
527 % Current (unlike Clea's) LY1 doesn't contain Wcircumflex and others.
528 % Look at it!
529 % \textsc{ly1} is
530 % necessary for access to Wcircumflex (Ŵ), wcircumflex (ŵ),
531 % Ycircumflex (Ŷ) and ycircumflex (ŷ) as pre-composed
532 % glyphs.
534 % Look what's different from Clea's package.
537 % Some Clea's texts that might be used:
539 % The final option controls whether Latin Modern is used for sans and
540 % typewriter text. Because Computer Modern does not support the
541 % TeXnANSI/\textsc{ly1} encoding, you will likely get strange results
542 % unless you redefine \path{\sfdefault} and \path{\ttdefault}. Latin
543 % Modern is used because it is close to the default Computer Modern fonts
544 % and is widely available. If you would prefer that the package not
545 % redefine the default sans and typewriter families, use \verb|lm=false|
546 % when loading \pkgname{gentiumplus}. To explicitly request the default
547 % behaviour, which does redefine these families, use \verb|lm| or
548 % \verb|lm=true|.
550 % Loading \path{gentium.sty} does not affect the setup for
551 % mathematics.
553 \end{document}


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